An Introduction to Compression: Basic Compression - A Free Guide from Audio Masterclass

An Introduction to Equalization - A Free Guide from Audio Masterclass

Equipping Your Home Recording Studio - A Free Guide from Audio Masterclass

Facebook social media iconTwitter social media iconYouTube social media iconSubmit to Reddit

Gain control

A description of the technology and function of the gain control as found in mixing consoles.


The mic preamp (preamplifer) is where the input signal is conditioned so that it is suitable for further processing in the console.

Each channel of the console has two input sockets; mic input and line input.

The mic input can accept the output of a microphone (naturally) or a DI (direct inject) box. Nothing else should be connected to a mic input.

Anything else will be connected to the line input.

FREE EBOOK - Equipping Your Home Recording Studio

Equipping Your Home Recording Studio

A microphone has a low output level. A typical figure would be 10 mV (one hundredth of a volt). The console likes to work on a signal level of around one volt to keep well above the inevitable noise signals that will be present.

This means that the signal has to be boosted by 100 times, or 40 dB (40 decibels).

Of course, the level that comes from the microphone depends on the level of the sound source, and its distance. In practice a mic preamp needs a range of gain of 20 dB up to 60 dB. Some preamps go beyond this range, from 0 dB to 80 dB. 0 dB means x1 or unity gain - in other words no gain at all. 80 dB means x10,000. This would cover all situations from a mic being placed 10 mm from the point where the kick drum pedal hits, to a watch ticking at twenty paces.

There would be no advantage in providing more than 80 dB of gain because the noise produced by the mic would be amplified above the console's noise level.

By David Mellor Friday May 23, 2003

How to Avoid These 4 Huge Mistakes In Audio

Are you making these 4 simple mistakes again and again in your home recording studio? They are easy to identify and avoid, so you don't have to. Learn more...

Free Ebook - Equipping Your Home Recording Studio

Set up your home recording studio in the very best way possible. Learn how to select equipment and solftware all the way through from microphones to monitors. Learn more...

Welcome to Professional Audio

Come on the Audio Masterclass FREE COURSE TOUR. A short series of tutorials to welcome you to the challenging world of professional audio. Learn more...