There are many microphones available that can produce a selection of polar patterns.
This is achieved by mounting two diaphragms back-to-back with a single central backplate.
By varying the relative polarization of the diaphragms and backplate, any of the four main polar patterns can be created.
It is often thought that the best and most accurate microphones are the true omnidirectional and the true figure-of-eight, and that mimicking these patterns with a multipattern mic is less then optimal.
Nevertheless, in practice multipattern mics are so versatile that they are commonly the mic of first choice for many engineers.