Film & TV
For film and television drama, a fishpole (or boom as it is sometimes known) topped by a shotgun or rifle mic with a cylindrical windshield is the norm. The operator can position and angle the mic to get the best quality dialogue (while monitoring on headphones), while keeping the mic – and the shadow of the mic – out of shot. Miniature microphones are also used in this context, often with radio transmitters. Obviously they must not be visible at all. However, concealing the mic in the costume can affect sound quality so care must be taken.
Sometimes in the studio a microphone might be mounted on a large floor mounted boom that can extend over several meters (we’re not in fishing country anymore). In this case the boom operator has winches to point and angle the microphone.